The immune system is the central defense mechanism of the human body. Comprised of a broad set of cell types and tissues, the immune system is critical in fighting off infections and eliminating abnormal cells from the body. Immune dysfunction is implicated in various acute and chronic diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s and cancer. By studying how immune dysfunction contributes to disease, we hope to find ways to mitigate these conditions. Additionally, approaches utilizing engineered immune cells, such as Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cells, provide an exciting and novel method of programming the immune system to attack specific pathogens or cancer cells.